Location: South Asia – Southern part of Nepal bordering India
Terrain: Plain low-lying land, includes some valleys
Climate: Hot and humid subtropical summer, mild winter
Area: About 23,068 sq. km
Population: About 12 million (2009)
Language: Madhyadeshiya (Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Maithili etc.)
Famous Places: Lumbini (Birthplace of Buddha, UNESCO World Heritage Site), Janakpur (Hindu Pilgrimage Site)
History: Madhesh/Tarai handed over to Nepal by British in 1816 and 1860wp_ss_20150402_0001[1]


Madhesh or Terai lies at the foothills of Himalayas. It is mostly the plain land on the southern side of Siwalik range in Nepal. It is situ-ated in the Outer Himalayan Zone, and has been created by oro-genic activity as well as by alluvial action in the Siwaliks and the Himalayan ranges (Spate and Learmonth, 1967). In addition to the plain land, it includes some low lying inner valleys, north of Si-waliks, and is referred as „Vitri Madhesh‟ (Inner Madhesh). Its total area is 23,068 square kilometres
The climate of Tarai is subtropical, similar to northern plains of In-dia. The hot and humid summer lasts from March to June, and the monsoon from late June to late September. The winter from No-vember to February is mild, though bouts of cold waves hit the re-gion.
The estimated population of Madheshis is 12 million. Madheshi community includes many indigenous people such as Tharus and Rajbanshis.

Madhesh has an agrarian economy, and once it was among the top-five exporters of rice in the world. However, due to the gov-ernment’s ban on import of fertilisers and seeds from nearby In-dia, lack of irrigation systems, and apathy of the government to-wards the issues of Madheshi farmers, its traditional agrarian base is dwindling and the society is becoming more and more dependent upon foreign remittances. Traditionally people used to go to various Indian states for work, mostly as farm labourers, but at recent times, some of them also go to the gulf and East Asian countries. There are some industries in Biratnagar and Bir-gunj area, but they are under the control of the northern ruling class people.

                 Language and Culture


Madheshis speak Madhyadesiya language, with a continuum of dia-lects as one moves from the east to the west (Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Baj-jika, Maithili, Tharu).

    Madheshis celebrate a large number of festivals around the year, including Holi, Jitiya, Sama Chakewa, Dashami, Bhardutiya, Judshital, Tila Sank-rait/Maghi, Chhath, Eid and Muharram.
  • ART
  • Mithila art is traditional distinct form of painting. The unique style of paintings made on house mud-walls is also very remarkable feature of Madheshi culture.
    The staple diet of the region is rice, dal (lentils soup) and curry. On festive occasions, people prepare a number of fried items of vegetables as well as many specialities. Fish is also popular in Terai.

 Visit Madhesh

  Getting There
The districts of Tarai are all connected by a single east-west high-way, with its major towns linked by 20-50km access roads. Buses travel between these towns regularly. Long route buses depart from Kathmandu to these towns too.
There are airports in Bhadrapur, Biratnagar, Janakpur, Birgunj, Bharatpur, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, and Dhangadhi, and flights de-part regularly from Kathmandu. The airports in Indian side near to border can be also used. The nearest ones are at Bagdogra (Siliguri), Patna, Varanasi, and Gorakhpur. There are over-land en-try points for foreigners at Kakarbhitta (from Darjeeling, Sikkim and Kolkata), Birganj/Raxaul (from Patna and Kolkata), Nepalganj (from Lucknow), Bhairahawa (from Varanasi, Agra and Delhi), and Mahen-dranagar (from Delhi and Uttaranchal).
Lumbini is the birthplace of Buddha. He was born in a garden in Lumbini in 563 BC. Maya Devi Temple, the exact spot where Queen Maya Devi of Kapilavastu gave birth to Siddhartha Gautam (Buddha) is a major attraction. The Ashokan pillar and the ruined foundations of ancient stupas and monasteries are also remarkable. Tilaurakot, about 25 km east of Lumbini, has the ruins of the palace, where Siddhartha Gautam spent the first 29 years of his life. It is a UNESCO world heritage site.


Janakpur is a Hindu pilgrimage site. It was the capital of King Janak and is the birthplace of Sita. The ideal time to visit the city is on the occasion of Hindu festival of Vivah Panchami around November-December.
Chitwan National Park
Chitwan national park, with its 932 sq km of reserve area, is home to one-horned Indian rhino, tigers, leopards and rare Gangetic dolphins. One can enjoy elephant safari in the park.
Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve
The reserve, composed of grassland and several small islands around Koshi river, is home to thousands of species of birds. One can also enjoy watching fresh water Dolphins, wild buffalos called Arna, deer, wild boars, pythons and crocodiles.
Royal Bardia National Park
This 968 sq km of reserve accommodates Bengal tiger, one-horned rhinos, grey langurs, rhesus macaques, leopards, civets, hyenas, and sloth bears. It is also home to more than 250 spe-cies of birds.
Other Towns
Biratnagar, Rajbiraj, Birgunj, Bharatpur, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Dhangadhi

´Madhesh´ is a morphological derivative of Madhyadesh (Sanskrit) or Majjhimadesh (Pali) and means the Middle Country signifying its lo-cation in the middle of the Indian Subcontinent.
Terai (also written as Tarai) is presumed to be derived from Persian, meaning “damp”, and denotes the land at the foothills of mountains, often damp and swampy.
Madhesh and Terai, both have been in use indiscriminately and syn-onymously in general context, in present day Nepal, however, the former includes the connotation of identity and culture of people liv-ing in the region, whereas the latter refers to geographical feature or terrain characteristics of the region. The use of Terai was popular-ised during Nepali colonisation.
Madheshis are residents of Madhesh sharing the correlated histori-cal, regional, cultural and lingual space.
The nation of Madhesh (Madhyadesh) exists since the beginning of human civilisation on the Indian Subcontinent. Vedas, Puranas, and other ancient texts have abundant descriptions of Madhyadesh.
The boundary of Madhyadesh is defined in ancient texts of Vedic era. For example, Manusmirti (circa 1500 BC, 2/21) defines Madhyadesh as the land between Himvat (Himalaya) and Vindhya Mountain and to the east of the river Vinasana (invisible Saraswati) and to the west of Prayag.
According to the Vedic Civilisation, the first significant king of Madhyadesh is said to be Ikshyaku or Okkāka, the son of Vaivasvata Manu and grandson of Vivaswan. Thirtyfour dynasties after him comes the much celebrated generation of Ram, and Sita, the daugh-ter of King Janak whose capital is said to be at the current town of Janakpur in Madhesh. The descriptions of various ruling dynasties can be found in the ancient texts such as Purana, Mahabharat and various Smiritis.
500 BC – 1400 AD
Around 500 BC, at the time of Buddha, the Buddhist texts calls this ´Middle Country´ Majjhimadesh in Pali language and defines the re-gion in canonical texts Vinaya Pitaka as extended “in the east to the town of Kajangala, beyond which was Mahāsāla; on the south-east to the river Salalavatī; on the south west to the town of Satakannika; on the west to the Brahmin village of Thūna; on the north to theUsiraddhaja Mountain.” At the time of Buddha, the eastern limit of the Middle Country had extended nearly 400 miles eastward of Prayaga which was its eastern most point in the Manu‟s time (Bhandarkar, 1918). According to Pali canon, the Majjhimadesh was “three hundred yojanas in length, two hundred and fifty in breadth, and nine hundred in circumference” and it contained fourteen out of the sixteen Mahājanapadas (Kāsī, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Mallā, Cetiya, Vamsā, Kuru, Pañcāla, Macchā, Sūrasena, Assaka, Avantī). Madhesh was ruled by several great dynasties in ancient and medieval times, from Emperor Ashoka to King Salhesh (c.500-600AD) and King Harisinghadev (c. 1300AD).
Upon the arrival of Islamic rulers from the Mid East on the Indian Subcontinent, they also called the plains of “undulating former marshland” of the Middle Country as ´Terai´, a word derived from Persian (तराई / ترائی ´wetland´ from تر ´wet´ ), meaning “moist land” (Encyclopedia Britannica). The British missionaries and the East India Company who came after Mughals also refer this re-gion of Madhyadesh with this name or its variants. However they also continued to use Madhyades as well, for example, see Mar-tin (1838), Elliot (1849), Muir (1873).
In 1325 AD, during the reign of Harisinghadev, Sultan Gaya-sudhin Tuglak attacked on the capital then at Simaraunagadh and destroyed it. Madhesh became part of Mughal Empire, and after that, it came under the East India Company. At the later stage of British Raj, the northern part of Madhyadesh was ruled by Sen dynasty as suzerainty states and paid taxes to Nawabs and the East India Company.

“…the Rajah of Nipal agrees to refrain from prosecuting any inhabitants of the Terai, after its revertance to his rule, on account of having favoured the cause of the British Government during the war…”
– British-Nepal Treaty 1816UNDER NEPALESE/GURKHA EMPIRE (1800 AD –)
With the state expansion initiated by Gurkha ruler Prithvi Nara-yan Shah in the late 18th century, Gurkhas took control of many parts of Madhesh by paying tax to Nawabs and the East India Company. However, the part of Madhesh present today in Nepal is a result of the memorandum of 1816 and the treaty of 1860 with the East India Company.
Through the memorandum of 8 December 1816, the Company government handed the region between west of Koshi and east to Rapti river to Nepal instead of paying two hundred thousands rupees per year as agreed previously on Gurkhas´ request for supporting living cost of their employees. The region west of Rapti and east of Mahakali came through the treaty of 1860 as a reward to Gurkhas for their support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 in India and is also called Naya Muluk (“New Country”).
Madhesh Movement
Madheshis fought against Gurkhali occupation since the first arri-val of Gurkhas in Madhesh. In the Anglo-Gurkha war of 1814-16, the Madheshis had fought on the side of British leading to an eventual victory over the Gurkhas. But the British handed over the Madheshis and their land to the same enemy, the Gurkhas. However, in the memorandum of 8th December 1816, through which the British handed over the Madheshis and their land to the Gurkhas, they put a condition to ensure the safety of the Madheshis, stating, “the Rajah of Nipal agrees to refrain from prosecuting any inhabitants of the Terai, after its revertance to his rule, on account of having favoured the cause of the British Government during the war”.
Tarai Congress
Vedanand Jha had established Terai Congress in 1951. “The party‟s objectives were (a) establishment of an autonomous terai state, (b) recognition of Hindi as a separate language; and (c) adequate employment of tarai people in the Nepal civil ser-vice.” (Gaige, 1975)
“Madhesh Liberation Movement” & “Madhesh Liberation Front”
Raghunath Thakur established Madhesh Liberation Movement in 1956 to end Nepali occupation of Madhesh. He under section 73 of UN charter . He later formed “Madhesi Janakrantikari Dal” to continue Madhesh Revolution. In 1960′s, “Terai Liberation Front” was established with a guerrilla war strategy. However, Nepal police and army killed its major leaders one by one including Ramji Mishra, Raghunath Raya Yadav, and Satyadev Mani Tri-pathi.
“…The British Government hereby bestows on the Ma-harajah of Nipal in full sov-ereignty, the whole of the lowlands between the Riv-ers Kali and Raptee, and the whole of the lowlands lying between the River Raptee and the District of Gorukpore…”
– British-Nepal Treaty 1860
Assassination attempt of King in 1962
Durga Nanda Jha attempted to assassinate King Mahendra of Nepal in January 1962 in Janakpur to oppose imposition of the autocratic Panchayat Regime in 1961. He blasted a bomb target-ing the car in which the king was travelling. He was later shot to death on 1963 AD (2020 BS). He was inspired from martyr Bha-gat Singh of India.
Ram Raja Prasad Singh’s 1985 bombings
Ram Raja Prasad Singh demanded in 1971 that the country be declared republic. He was put behind bars for several years for that demand. He blasted bombs in Kathmandu near the royal palace, at the deluxe Hotel de l’Annapurna owned by the royal family, and at the Singh Durbar. The bomb also exploded in Bhairahawa, Birgunj, Janakpur, Biratnagar and Jhapa. He was sentenced to death, but he managed to escape and live on an exile in India.
Sadbhavana Council and Party
Gajendra Narayan Singh established Sadbhavana Council in 1985 to fight for the issues of citizenship, language, dress and interests of Madheshis. Sadbhavana Council turned into Nepal Sadbhavana Pary in 1990.
In December 2006, in Nepalgunj, Pahadis attacked violently on Madheshis peacefully protesting against the interim constitution failing to address their issues. The ruling class people supported by local police and administration went on rampage for days and beat Madheshis and burnt their houses and shops. Similar inci-dence took place in Lahan, flaring the movement all over Mad-hesh. The movement continued for three weeks. Then, on and off, it continued to the next year. During the movement, the gov-ernment deployed a large number of armed police forces , and imposed curfews for several weeks. United Nations reported “an excessive use of the force” and “the forces taking quick action against individuals violating curfews in an excessive and unnec-essary way” during the movement. More than fifty-three Mad-heshis were killed and thousands of them were injured in the movement.

– (Vedic/Mythical Period)
Ikshyaku or Okkāka becomes the first signifi-cant king of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)
– (Vedic/Mythical Period)
King Janak rules, capital at Janakpur
Sita, the heroine of Ramayan, born (after 34 generation of Ikshyaku)
c. 1500 BC
Manusmiriti (2/21) defines the boundary of Madhyadesh (Madhesh)
Siddhartha Gautam (Buddha) born in Kapil-vatthu, Majjhimadesh (Madhesh)
268-31 B.C
Emperor Ashoka rules
249 BC
Emperor Ashoka visits Lumbini, tax reduced and entitled to the eight part only.
ca. 353-73 AD
Emperor Samudragupta
c.500-600 AD
King Salhesh rules, capital at Mahisautha, Siraha
c. 1300 AD
Harisinghadev rules, capital at Simrauna-gadh (currently Simra)
1325 AD
Sultan Gayasudhin Tuglak attacks Simrauna-gadh
1513 – 1774 AD
Sen Kingdoms in Palpa, Makawanpur, Chau-dandi, Bijaypur, Morang
1526 AD
Mughal Empire established
c. 1764 AD
British East India Company gains control over many parts of Madhesh
1768 AD
Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Kathmandu
Dismisses 12000 Tirhutia (Madheshi) armies of Jay Prakash Malla
1774 AD

Prithvi Narayan Shah attacks Makwanpur

1814-16 AD
Anglo-Gurkha War
Madheshis fight on the British side

1816 AD
British-Nepal Treaty on 8th December; British hands over Terai region between west of Ko-shi and east to Rapti river to Nepal
Kot Massacre takes place; Jang Bahadur be-comes prime minister
1860 AD
British-Nepal Treaty; British gifts Terai region between Rapti and Mahakali rivers to Nepal for their support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 in India
1911 AD
King George V of Britain visits Terai and hunts 21 tigers, 8 rhinos, and a bear.
1923 Dec 21
Nepal changed from British protectorate to independent nation. (MC, 12/21/01)
1934 AD
Jan 15, An 8.4 Richter scale earthquake kills thousands of people in Nepal/India
1950-51 AD
Ranas fall; King Tribhuvan regains control; interim constitution promulgated
1951 AD
Terai Congress formed led by Vedanand Jha
King Mahendra ascends throne
Nepal Citizenship Act promulgated
Nepal admitted to the United Nations
Nepalese government starts malaria eradica-tion

Raghunath Thakur established the Madhesh Liberation Movement
Imposition of Nepali as sole language for education sparks protests
End of visa provision for Madheshis to enter Kathmandu
Terai Liberation Front established
King Mahendra issues constitution unfavour-able to Madheshis

Nepalese Police kills Ramji Mishra, the leader of Terai Liberation Front
New Citizenship Act makes it harder for Mad-hesis to acquire citizenship.
“Land Reformation Act” promulgated; mas-sive land seized from Madheshis
Royal Nepalese Army kills Raghunath Raya Yadav, the leader of Terai Liberation Front
Chairman of Terai Liberation Front Satyadev Mani Tripathi killed
King Birendra ascends throne
Raghunath Thakur dies (June 21)
Nepal Sadbhavana Council formed under Gajendra Narayan Singh to raise Madheshi issues.
Nepal‟s failure to renegotiate trade and tran-sit treaties with India, India imposes sanction across “open border”
New constitution promulgated following the agitations
Dhanapati Upadhyay Commision finds 4 mil-lion people without citizenships
Maoists launch insurgency.
Supreme Court voids 30 thousands citizen-ship certificates of Madheshis
March 18 1998
Supreme Court bans the use of Maithili (local) language in Rajbiraj and Janakpur Municipalities
Maoists set up Madhesi Rashtriya Mukti Morcha (MRMM) under Jai Krishna Goit in Siliguri.

Dec 26, racial riot against Madheshis began all over the country, following a rumour that Hrithnik Roshan, an Indian film star, allegedly spoke of his dislike for Nepal. At least 4 peo-ple killed.
Supreme Court mandates people to get work permit in the lack of citizenship certificates. Many Madheshis out of work.
Jay Krishna Goit forms the Janatantrik Tarai Mukti Morcha (JTMM).
2006 April
Following nineteen-day mass movement, king announces reinstatement of parliament.
2006 December
Nepalgunj Riot; 26-Dec, Pahadi attacks on a Madheshi gathering and the racial riot be-gins; Madheshis houses and shops burned, and Madheshis attacked; police and admini-stration found supporting the attack. 30 De-cember, Ian Martin, special representative of the UN Secretary-General, voices his con-cern about violent activities
2007 Jan-Feb
Madhesh Movement; 19-Jan: Maoists clash with Madheshi activists in Lahan, killing stu-dent Ramesh Kumar Mahato. 20-Jan: Curfew imposed. 21 January-7 February: Movement picks up against the government, with huge public support and mass defiance of curfews, clashes between police and protestors; Al-most 40 killed.
2008 January
Madhesh Movement; Massive protests against the government. A series of bomb blasts kill and injure dozens.
2008 May
Nepal becomes a republic.
2011 January
UN peace monitoring mission ends.
2011 March 31
Historic meeting of Madheshis took place in Kathmandu after 22 years. Dr. C. K. Raut appeals for a stronger coalition to take the Madhesh Movement to the global level
2011 May 21
Alliance for Independent Madhesh (AIM) an-nounces manifesto and plans
2012 May
Prime Minister Bhattari dissolves the parlia-ment

Madhesh or Tarai was annexed to Nepal only in 1816 and 1860. British handed over the eastern part of Madhesh to Nepal in 1816, instead of pay-ing two hundred thousands rupees per year. British gave the western part as a gift to Nepal for its support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 in India. Thus Madhesh became the colony of Nepal. Some of the remarkable features of Nepali Colonisation are: aboli-tion of Madheshi Army and ban on the entry of Madheshis into Nepal Army; establishment of Nepali Army barracks and check posts throughout Mad-hesh; heavy and unfair taxation; seizing of land of indigenous people and distributing to the ruling class landlords, retired army and police staffs; planned migration of ruling class people from the north; requirement for a visa to enter Kathmandu (until 1958); imposition of Nepali language and dress on Madheshis.
The racism and the hatred of Gurkhas/Nepalis against Madheshis, the “emphatic contempt of Madhesias” and their non-tolerance to “black-folks,” existed since they first came into Madhesh. Brian Hodgson, the British Resident for Nepal in 1816, wrote of Gurkhas: “I conceive that their gallant spirit, emphatic contempt of Madhesias [people of the plains], and unadul-terated military habits, might be relied on for fidelity.” Similarly, Philip Mason (1974) quotes, “…around the time of the Mutiny Gurkhas asked to be al-lowed to pitch their tents with British solider, not with ‘the black folks’. That racism ballooned as the Nepali state became stronger. In recent times, not only Madheshis are treated based on the colour of their skin and discrimi-nated for rights including job, payment, and facilities, but they frequently become victims of racial attacks and riots.
Once the government eradicated malaria in the region and made the land less dreading to the ruling class in 1950s, the government officials and rul-ing class people seized land from tens of thousands of indigenous Mad-heshis and made them “bonded labourers”, on their own ancestral land. Those indigenous Madheshis worked essentially as slaves, under their masters, and the slavery passed from generation to generation. They are called Kamaiyas and Kamlaris. They do not only have to do menial work since the early age of four or five, but they are also the victims of sexual ex-ploitation from their masters.

The government‟s so-called “land-reformation” and “resettlement” programmes seized land of indigenous communities and settled the ruling northern people in the south, sometimes with the aid of foreign governments. The US, Australian and Israeli governments funded several of these projects. This caused displacement of indigenous communities like Tharus, Rajbanshis and Satars in many districts, prominently in Jhapa, Chitwan, Navalparasi and western districts.

There have been many organised efforts for “Nepalization of Terai” (Gaige, 1975), demographically, culturally, and linguistically. The worst form has been direct physical attacks on Madheshis, burning their villages, shops, and industries and so on. There are several violent groups for ethnic cleansing of Madheshis such as Khukuri Group and CBES. They frequently attack and force Madheshis to leave their land and go into exile. Sometimes, the government, administration and po-lice have been found to be directly involved in supporting these racial riots. Some of these racial riots include Hrithik Roshan Scandal (2000), Nepalgunj Attack (2006), and Kapilvastu Incidence (2007).

Many Madheshis have been traditionally denied several fundamental rights such as citizenship, ownership of land, access to government jobs, access to local natural resources, freedom to open business or migrate to other places. Madheshis lack freedom of expression to much extent, as they are subjected to banishment, harassment, torture and even firing from the jobs by administration.

The land, water, and forest of Tarai are being exploited by the govern-ment. The taxing, custom duties and trade regulations are unfairly tar-geted at Madheshis. The control over local forests of the region has been given to the people from the north. The unfair pricing, ban on ex-ports, and curbing of markets for the produces of the region are all ex-ploiting in nature.

Madheshis are the victim of „one language, one dress‟ policy and cultural purification initiated by the ruling class. The government prohibited use of other languages in education, administration and broadcasting. It halted FMs broadcasting in other languages. The Supreme Court banned the use of local languages in Tarai. The state took the policy of: “No other lan-guages should be taught even optionally…Other language will gradually disappear”. It enforced the dress of northern people upon the Madheshis.

„Muluki Ain‟ (The Law of the Land) ensured a superior status of the northern people and made Madheshis second-class citizens or subjects of the ruling class. There were separate laws and provisions for Madheshis. They were fined or punished heavily for the same crime compared to the ruling class people. They were taxed in a larger portion, and yet giving no or less rights. Even today, laws regarding citizenship, land, language and culture, move-ment, assembly etc. are unfairly targeted at Madheshis.

Madheshis have cultural and family ties across the current border of Nepal-India since millennia. Recognising this, even the 1950 India-Nepal treaty allowed open border without which Madhesh would not have been annexed to Nepal. But Madheshis are often tortured by armed police forces and gov-ernment officials in border areas. They are harassed, their properties are often confiscated, and they are beaten on several occasions.              

In 2010, United Nations published a report on extra-judicial killings of at least 57 persons in the region. Similarly, THRD published a report of 1131 cases of jailing in 8 districts of Terai during a four year period, many among them claimed to be fake and misuse of the Arms and Ammunition Act to eliminate Madheshi activists and human-rights defender in Terai. The gov-ernment forced the closure of UNMIN and UN OHCHR offices in the region, and with the absence of human-rights monitors, the case of extrajudicial killings and encounters have surged largely.

The region has one of the lowest human-development index in the country. Literacy rate is much lower than the northern part, and with not much ac-cess to the government jobs, the unemployment is towering. Rather than opening up industry, hospitals, education centres and schools, the govern-ment has closed even the existing ones and is in the process of migrating the remaining to the north. People suffer from poverty and malnourishment. A majority of women in the region suffer from anaemia. Child mortality rate is several times higher than in the north.

About Alliance for Independent Madhesh (AIM)
AIM is an alliance of Madheshi people, activists, parties and various organi-sations working for establishing an independent and sovereign Madhesh / Tarai. In the same way as Gandhi and Mandela fought for the independ-ence of their countries and finally liberated them, it aims to achieve inde-pendence through peaceful and non-violent means. It demands an end to the Nepali colonisation, racism, slavery and discrimination imposed on Madheshis. It aims to institutionalise a democratic and just system in Mad-hesh / Tarai.
To establish “The Republic of Madhesh/Tarai”.
Alliance for Independent Madhesh has three main pillars:
 Independence of Madhesh/Tarai,
 Democratic System,
 Peaceful and Non-violent Means.

 Declare Madhesh as a sovereign and independent nation and form the interim Madhesh Government which will take care of the tasks of state transition, administration, holding election and drafting con-stitution.
 Withdraw Nepali colonial administrative structures and administra-tors from Madhesh.

 Withdraw occupying Nepali colonial army from Madhesh and immediately form Madhesh Army.
 Withdraw Armed Police Force and Nepal Police from Madhesh, and immediately form Madhesh Police.
 Remove all tax collection from Madhesh by Nepal Government.
 Return the land seized from Madheshis.
 Remove the control of Nepal Government on land, water, forest and other resources in Madhesh.
 Take initiatives to open diplomatic and consular offices of the United Nations and other sovereign nations of the world in Madhesh.
 Develop human resources and infrastructures required for an independent Madhesh. (Establish sustainable administrative and physical infrastructures in every districts, villages and wards; Prepare national infrastructures such as national plan-ning commission, think tank, media house, national newspa-pers, radio and TV channels for Madhesh; Train administrators, army and police.)
 Make Madhesh caucus in the parliaments of India, USA, UK, EU and other countries and gather international support for an independent Madhesh.
 Form the Government of Madhesh, and institutionalise Mad-hesh as a sovereign nation and establish democratic process and structure in the country.
 Issue citizenship certificates and passports of Madhesh
 Establish diplomatic relations with other sovereign nations of the world, open diplomatic offices in their countries and request them to open their offices in Madhesh; establish multilateral relations with world bodies like World Bank, Asian Development Bank etc.
 Apply for a membership in the United Nations and establish Madhesh on the world stage.
 Obtain the rights for the Madheshis in India according to the Nepal-India friendship treaty of 1950 and further advocate for the privileged rights of Madheshis in India.
 Voice against the racism and discrimination Nepal imposed on Madheshis in the International Court of Justice and demand for the compensation; Arrange for lifelong security and support to martyrs’ families, injured ones and others tortured by the Nepali state.
 Expand the network of Madheshi organisations in the world, and raise awareness about Madhesh and Madheshis in the world.


wp_ss_20150402_0010[1]                                                                                                                                                   visit site
Dr. C. K. Raut leads the Alliance. Born and brought up in Madhesh, he holds a PhD from Cambridge University, UK. He worked as a scientist in the USA, prior to returning to Madhesh in 2011 to serve the cause of Madhesh and Madheshis. He has been also the founding president of the Non-Resident Madheshis Associa-tion, which works to promote the cause of Madheshis internationally. He is also the founder of the Injot Movement, an initiative for social transformation targeted at Nepal, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. He is a recipient of Youth Engineer Award, Mahendra Vidhya Bhooshan, Kulratna Goldmedal, Trofimenkoff Academic Achievement Award among others. His autobiography „Vairagdekhi Va-chavsamma‟ is also published (Nepali translation of ‘Denial to Defence’).

Dr. C. K. Raut chairing the conference on “The Role of NGOs/INGOs in Developing Madhesh”; With the Honour-able Minister for Women, Children and Social Welfare Dan Bahadur Chaudhary; Mr. Rajib Upadhya, Sr. External Affairs Specialist from World Bank; H. E. Robert Piper, UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinator for Nepal; H. E. John Tucknott, the UK Ambassador to Nepal; H. E. Dr. Alexander Spachis, the Ambassdor to the EU Delega-tion to Nepal; Shri Jaideep Mazumdar, Deputy Chief of Mission, Embassy of India; (2011 November 14) [above]
Dr. C. K. Raut representing Madheshis at the United Nations Meeting on LDC, at New York Headquarter on April 1, 2011.


Alliance for Independent Madhesh
Non-Resident Madheshis Association
Nepal’s Troubled Tarai Region
Asia Report N°136, International Crisis Group, 9 July 2007.
Investigating Allegations of Extra-Judicial Killings in the Terai,
United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Nepal (OHCHR-Nepal),
23 September 2010.
Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal,
F. H. Gaige,
University of California Press, 1975.
A History of Nepal,
J. Whelpton,
Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Lonely Planet Publications, 2006.
History of Terai in Nepal,
J. K. Goit, 2007.
Whole Terai belongs to Madhesh: Historial Facts,
Vivaswan Kumar, 2009.
Social Inclusion of Madheshi Community in Na-tion Building
Shree Govinda Shah, 2006.
Restructuring of Nepali State: A Madheshi Per-spective
A. Singh, 2003.

                                                                                                        edited by: pawan patel





                                                                    LETS EXPLORE NEPAL 


1. Kathmandu has more UNESCO World Heritage Sites than any other city in the world.    


 2. World’s tallest grasslands are found in Nepal.

Nepals grassland

3. Nepal is a habitat for 900 species of birds i.e. about 8% of world’s total bird species. This makes it a wonderland for bird watching.


4. World’s most extreme (longest, steepest and fastest) zip-line is built at Sarangkot. A zip-line rider rides down the cable for two kilometers and gets to view surrounding peaks of Machhapuchhre and Annapurna.extreme-zipline-of-the-world-pokhara

5. Out of the world’s top 10 tallest mountains, Nepal has 8 including Mount Everest (all rising over 8000 metres/ 26, 247 feet).Pokhara_image

6. The Kali Gandaki Gorge in Nepal is often considered the deepest gorge in the world.

nepals deepest george

7. Nepal is the oldest country of South Asia, and it was never colonized.gorkhali army

8. Nepal is the only country in world with non-quadrilateral national flag.largest-human-flagLargest Human Flag of Nepal is an event organized to form the world’s largest human national flag in Kathmandu. It was organized on 23 August 2014 by Human Values for Peace and Prosperity, an NGO in Nepal with a slogan – Breaking the Records to Unite the Hearts. More than 35,000 Nepalese gathered in Tundikhel inKathmandu to form the world’s largest human national flag.

9. Nepal is the only country in the world home to a living goddess, the Kumari.

living kumari god

10. Nepal is the only country in the world to not have a time offset in multiples of 30 minutes from UTC. The time zone here is GMT+ 5:45.Coventry_Time_Zone_Clock

11. Unlike Other countries, Nepal has Saturday as public holiday, not Sunday.saturday is holiday

12. Not A Single Drop Of Blood Has Ever Been Shed In Nepal In The Name Of Religion.religious harmony in nepalwelcome to all





Swine flu (H1N1 flu) 


H1N1 is the very clinical-sounding official name for Swine Flu. (So named because the virus is very similar to one carried by pigs.) It’s a flu virus and it spreads in the same way as seasonal flu: through direct contact with people who are already infected; through airborne cough and sneeze germs; and from sharing drinks and cutlery.


Swine flu signs and symptoms in humans are similar to those of other flu strains:

  • Fever

  • Cough

  • Sore throat

  • Runny or stuffy nose

  • Body aches

  • Headache

  • Chills

  • Fatigue

  • Diarrhea

  • Vomiting

Swine flu symptoms develop about one to three days after you’re exposed to the virus and continue for about seven days.


If you develop any type of flu, these measures may help ease your symptoms:

  • Drink plenty of liquids. Choose water, juice and warm soups to prevent dehydration. Drink enough so that your urine is clear or pale yellow.

  • Rest. Get more sleep to help your immune system fight infection.

  • Consider pain relievers. Use an over-the-counter pain reliever, such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), cautiously. Also, use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers.

    Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. This is because aspirin has been linked to Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children.

    Remember, pain relievers may make you more comfortable, but they won’t make your symptoms go away faster and may have side effects. Ibuprofen may cause stomach pain, bleeding and ulcers. If taken for a long period or in higher than recommended doses, acetaminophen can be toxic to your liver.


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends flu vaccination for all people older than 6 months of age. An H1N1 virus is one component of the seasonal flu shot for 2013-2014. The flu shot also protects against two or three other influenza viruses that are expected to be the most common during the 2013-2014 flu season.

The vaccine will be available as an injection or a nasal spray. The nasal spray is approved for use in healthy people 2 through 49 years of age who are not pregnant.

These measures also help prevent swine flu (H1N1 flu) and limit its spread:

  • Stay home if you’re sick. If you do have swine flu (H1N1 flu), you can give it to others starting about 24 hours before you develop symptoms and ending about seven days later.

  • Wash your hands thoroughly and frequently. Use soap and water, or if they’re unavailable, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Flu viruses can survive for two hours or longer on surfaces, such as doorknobs and countertops.

  • Contain your coughs and sneezes. Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. To avoid contaminating your hands, cough or sneeze into a tissue or the inner crook of your elbow.

  • Avoid contact. Stay away from crowds if possible. And if you’re at high risk of complications from the flu — for example, you’re younger than 5 or you’re 65 or older, you’re pregnant, or you have a chronic medical condition such as asthma — consider avoiding swine barns at seasonal fairs and elsewhere.

  • Reduce exposure within your household. If a member of your household has swine flu, designate only one household member to be responsible for the ill person’s personal care.


  • Most cases of flu, including H1N1 flu, require only symptom relief. If you have a chronic respiratory disease, your doctor may prescribe additional medication to help relieve your symptoms.

    The antiviral drugs oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) are sometimes prescribed to reduce the severity of symptoms, but flu viruses can develop resistance to them. Some researchers recommend further study on both of these drugs due to uncertainty about their effects beyond the initial reduction in symptoms.

    To make development of resistance less likely and maintain supplies of these drugs for those who need them most, antivirals are reserved for people at high risk of complications.

    High-risk groups are those who:

    • Are hospitalized

    • Are younger than 5 years of age, particularly children younger than 2 years

    • Are 65 years and older

    • Are pregnant or within two weeks of delivery, including women who have had pregnancy loss

    • Are younger than 19 years of age and are receiving long-term aspirin therapy, because of an increased risk for Reye’s syndrome, a rare but potentially fatal disease

    • Have certain chronic medical conditions, including asthma, emphysema, heart disease, diabetes, neuromuscular disease, obesity, and kidney, liver or blood disease

    • Are immunosuppressed due to certain medications or HIV



acid3In South Asia we come up with novel ways to maim and murder our women. We kill them in the womb, we kill them when they are newborns and, if they’re lucky to survive into adulthood, we douse them with kerosene and set them alight. We pull them into SUVs, rape them and then casually toss them out on the sidewalk as we would a can of Coke.

We also throw acid on their faces – perhaps the worst form of torture. This way you don’t just kill a woman and put her out of her suffering (after all there is peace in death) but condemn her to something much worse – a living death, a lifetime in hell on earth. The victim becomes a pariah – she is shunned by society, employers, sometimes even by her own family.


The Supreme Court recently pulled up the Centre for failing to take adequate measures to stop acid attacks. According to activists, India records more than 1000 cases every year. There are several more which do not figure in police records. The problem is not limited to India. In June this year, 18-year-old Bushra Waiz, a Pashto-language singer and actor who has been entertaining audiences since the age of 13, was splashed with acid by one of her Pakistani colleagues. The reason he gave for doing so is the reason given by most attackers – she had rejected his marriage proposal. Throughout South Asia, these ‘spurned lovers’ are seldom punished, and even if they go to prison, they are soon out on bail. The message they seem to be sending out is this: ‘If I can’t have her, then no one else can.’

It is a myth that these attacks happen only in moffusil towns or rural areas. It’s wrong to assume that urban English-speaking women are somehow immune to this. Every single woman is vulnerable. In one widely reported incident, a Mysore landlord attacked a young doctor who was living alone with her 4-year-old son. She had rejected his advances and even managed to get a restraining order issued. In 2006, actress Kangana Ranaut’s sister had acid thrown on her by a young man in Dehradun’s Karanpur locality. This was done in broad daylight in a crowded neighbourhood.

There have been other cases. Husbands have been known to do it to their wives, just because the wife complained of the husband’s chronic drinking and gambling. In-laws have done it for dowry. Property disputes are another cause, though not so much in India where it’s mostly jilted lovers sulking and skulking around with bottles of sulphuric acid.

The painful consequences of acid burns are well known. Skin tissue melts, bones dissolve and one’s eyes are reduced to hollow sockets. Multiple and very expensive surgeries are required, which are beyond the reach of most.

How can this be stopped? By putting curbs on the sale of acid. In South Asia, acid – sulphuric, nitric or hydrochloric – is cheaply and easily available at every neighbourhood grocer’s. We still use acid to clean our toilets and unblock kitchen drains. It’s a mystery why we continue with this, because there are now several safer and more effective alternatives available.

We can take a leaf out of Bangladesh’s example where acid attacks have come down significantly after stringent laws were enacted and enforced. The Acid Offences Prevention Act 2002 and the Acid Control Act banned the open sale of acids, and imposed stringent punishment (including the death penalty) and a fine on offenders. Investigations have to be completed within 30 days and the trial within 90 days. Dedicated Prevention Tribunals have been set up with the sole objective of looking into these crimes.


In India, acid offences were included in the Sexual Assault Bill 2012. But a proposal to make perpetrators compensate victims and foot their medical expenses was inexplicably dropped. This proposal needs to be immediately revived. The government has agreed to pay a compensation of 2 lakhs, which is not adequate. This needs to be raised. Acid victims are people with severe disabilities and as such they deserve the same benefits that are offered to the physically challenged: a monthly pension, concessions on public transport and reservations in higher education and jobs.

The indiscriminate retail sale of acid ought to be brought under the Explosives Act. This simple measure will restrict its storage and distribution, and make sure that transactions are recorded accurately, particularly at the point of sale.


This will help the state keep a record of those buying the deadly liquid, thus preventing its misuse. A maximum of 10 years behind bars is not punishment enough for destroying someone’s life in a matter of seconds. The government should look into extending the period of incarceration to life imprisonment. Throwing acid is a capital offence even in Iran.

The Centre has dragged its feet on the issue for years. Time is running out. We need to make sure that such incidents do not happen in the future, and those who are affected are provided with money, medical help and counselling. Even the feistiest of victims do not find it easy to live their lives. Fakhra Younous was 22 (and drop dead gorgeous) when her husband, who comes from an elite political family in Pakistan, poured acid on her. Her crime – she dared ask him for a divorce. Younous relocated to Italy where she underwent 38 painful reconstructive surgeries over a period of 13 years. She relentlessly campaigned for victims of acid attacks. Last year she jumped to her death from her 6th floor apartment.